Annotations of journal №4 (2015)

Economy. Labor.
Employment

 

PECULIARITIES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CRETERIA OF THE PROFESSIONALIZATION MANAGEMENT
EFFICIENCY AT THE INSTITUTES OF HIGHER EDUCATION

 

By A.I. Kapterev,
T.V. Grishina, E.T. Osetrov

 

Kapterev Andrey Igorevich - Doctor of Sociology,
Doctor of Pedagogies, Professor of the Department of Economy and Management of
the Academy of Labor and Social Relations.

Address: Lobachevskogo St. 90, Moscow 119454.

Tel.: +7 (499) 432 05 71. E-mail: kapterev@narod.ru

Grishina Tatiana Vasiljevna - Doctor of Economics,
Professor of the Department of Economics of the Academy of Labor and Social
Relations, Director of the Center of International Programs.

Address: Lobachevskogo St. 90, Moscow 119454.

Tel.: +7 (499) 432 05 84. E-mail: tatiana-grishina@yandex.ru

Osetrov Evgeny Timofeevich - Candidate of Philosophy,
Deputy Director of the Center of International Programs of the Academy of Labor
and Social Relations.

Address: Lobachevskogo St. 90, Moscow 119454.

Tel.: +7 (499) 432 05 71. E-mail:
evgeny.osetrov@atiso.ru

 

Summary. This article is a sequel to the article "Integral Criteria of
Professionalization Management Efficiency" [1], which presented a
methodological approach to the formation of quantitative criteria of
professionalization management efficiency in different professional areas, such
as trade, corporate, personality. The article in question closely scrutinizes
the criteria and indicators of professionalization management efficiency at the
institutes of higher education that generally graduate key experts. Despite of
the fact that Russia stands first as regards the number of people with higher
education (40 % of the employable population), the structure and quality of the
professional capacities of graduating students are still disputable. The
authors suggest a system of quantitative (but not only qualitative) evaluation
of cooperation between an institute of higher education and the educational
services market. Such system suggests a dynamic cooperation with the potential
suppliers of university entrants (schools, colleges, etc.), potential consumers
of the educational services (college entrants and students), as well as
employers, those who can impartially assess the expertise of graduating students,
rather than an institute itself. It is natural that at present when
professional standards have not yet become a universal tool for such impartial
evaluation and the system of independent educational certification is just
coming into being, it is particularly interesting to continue a discussion as
to how to achieve a more efficient professionalization management in Russia.

 

Key words: Professionalization, vocational guidance, human factor, educational
services market, labor market, professional capacities.

 

GOALS OF THE HEALTH SERVICE AND TRADE UNIONS TO OVERCOME THE HUMAN
RESOURCES POPULATION CRISIS IN RUSSIA

 

By I.A. Gundarov,
A.L. Safonov

 

Gundarov Igor Alexeevich - M.D., Candidate of
Philosophy, Professor, Chief Scientific Associate of the Research Institute of
Public Health and Health Service Management of the First Moscow State Medical
University named after I.M.Sechenov.

Address: Trubetskaya St. 8, bldg. 2, Moscow 119991.

Tel.: +7 (926) 330 92 93. E-mail: gundarov.ia@mail.ru

Safonov Alexander Ljvovich - Doctor of Economics,
Professor, Vice-Chancellor (Development) at the Academy of Labor and Social
Relations, Vice-Chancellor at the Russian Academy of National Economy and Civil
Service.

Address: Vernadskogo Av. 84, Moscow 119571.

Tel.: +7 (903) 722 92 33. E-mail: alsafonov@list.ru

 

Summary. This article displays the scale of the human resources population crisis
in Russia caused by an annual reduction of the able-bodied population by one
million people. The paper reveals the reasons of such crisis, notably
step-by-step reactions due to a baby bust for one million births since the
beginning of 1990th. The article
proves that the current steps to boost the employable population (immigrants,
higher retirement age, etc.) are not sufficient. The authors demonstrate that
it is possible to return to the labor market up to 700,000 people every year by
a twofold reduction of invalidism and a death rate at the cost of preventive
health care for the basic noninfectious diseases. The authors make a
calculation that the number of employees with a high risk of dangerous diseases
is no higher than 5 % of the total working people. As follows from the above,
it is necessary to establish at enterprises a four-stage system of personalized
preventive measures, i.e. detect the persons exposed to a high risk, try to
find the reasons for an unfavorable prognosis, make prolonged corrections,
evaluate performance and make managerial decisions. The article shows that it
is possible to prolong creative life of retirees with the help of
gerontological techniques inhibiting aging. Opening at enterprises of health
rooms and introducing an assessment of personal risks will allow enlarge the
preventive measures for occupational diseases at the cost of nonspecific health
balances control. The authors justify an important role of trade unions in
securing the operation of a low cost-based system of collective and individual
promotion of employees' health.

 

Key words: Disease prevention, human resources crisis, health balances, trade
unions, health care system, manpower resources.

 

METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE ELABORATION OF A STRATEGY FOR THE REGIONAL
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIA

 

By E.G. Gushchina,
O.E. Sergeeva, L.A. Sizeneva

 

Gushchina Elena Gennadievna - Doctor of Economics,
Professor of the Department of Economics and Management of the Volgograd Branch
of the Academy of Labor and Social Relations.

Address: Kalinina St. 25, apartment 11, Volgograd,
400001.

Tel.: +7 (927) 257 10 40. E-mail: L055@mail.ru

Sergeeva Oxana Evgenievna - Candidate of Economics,
Associate Professor of the Department of Marketing and Logistics at the St.
Peterburg State Trade and Economic University.

Address: Nevsky Av. 139-29, St. Peterburg.

Tel.: +7 (921) 655 80 04. E-mail: sergeevaoe@mail.ru

Sizeneva Lidia Akexandrovna - Candidate of Economics,
Head of the Department of Economics and Management of the Volgograd Branch of
the Academy of Labor and Social Relations.

Address: Krasnoznamenskaya St. 8, apartment 128,
Volgograd, 400131.

Tel.: +7 (903) 375 29 17. E-mail: vfatico_em@mail.ru

 

Summary. This article is devoted to the problems of building-up the development
strategies on a regional level. The update of the socio-economic area of the
most of the constituent regions of the Russian Federation coupled with a whole
complex of problems is not possible without taking into account the new
territorial progress trends, challenges, patterns and inconsistencies in the
activity of the modern Russian society, transformation of the social wants,
realignment of the development strategies in the regions to activation of the
competitive advantages of such territories based on innovations. In the
authors' opinion, all the above determine the changes in control strategies in
the territories and a design of an appropriate development mechanism for the
regional socio-economic area based on transition from the line and division
principles to some new forms and methods, notably a decentralized management of
changes, stepping action on the region's economic area within the bounds of the
development of a strategy. Therefore, the social and economic development
strategies being today implemented in the constituent regions of the Russian
Federation should be elaborated by various ways, for different periods and
determine the goals adequate to the territory's specific characters. Thereupon,
seeking of some new methodological approaches adapted to the modern management
phenomena in the regions is quite urgent. This problem can be solved by
elaborating an all-in-one, but flexible and overall strategy development
system. It is observed in the article that this methodological approach has a
practical importance for both the regional and national levels of the
government administration. Besides, it is of considerable theoretical
importance for the development of the regional economic science aiming to
comprehend the processes connected with the elaboration and implementation of
the development strategies for the territories, given polarization and
formation of the innovation model of the Russian economy.

 

Key words: Economic crisis, regional development, inter-regional disproportions,
economic sanctions, policy target planning.

 

CHANGES IN THE LABOR ACTIVITY IN THE POST-SOVIET PERIOD

 

By N.V. Koulikova

 

Koulikova Natalya Vyacheslavovna - Candidate of
Sociology, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Sociology and
Social Processes Management of the Academy of Labor and Social Relations.

Address: Lobachevskogo St. 90, Moscow.

Tel.: +7 (926) 216 93 24. E-mail: logosn1@yandex.ru

 

Summary. This article deals with the unfavorable changes in the labor activity,
notably in the character and meaning of labor, in the system of labor
relations. Such changes followed the social reforms resulting in the social
inequality deepened drastically, the rights and possibilities for big business
broadened and at the same time axed for wage laborers. The wage earners
position is effected by unemployment growth aggravated with the inflow of
migrants from the nearby foreign countries who are ready to work for lesser
money. Another negative factor is "outsourced labor". An outsourced worker
makes a provisional agreement with the recruiting agency servicing the
employer, rather than with the employer himself. In such event, the services of
such recruiting agency are free for the employer which allows him substantially
reduce his costs. As a result, the work of wage laborers takes shape of a
forced labor, and its meaning content gets narrow. The social relations at the
enterprise undergo a cardinal change as well: They become discrete, the
employee-employer relations - unbalanced, and trade unions are gradually being
excluded from the social relations system. As a result, the social security of
wage earners is being brought down.

 

Key words: Labor activity, outsourced labor, social relations, social security of
wage laborers, wage labor.

 

Labor
Economics

 

A CRITICAL EYE ON PERSONNEL ECONOMICS AND HRM

 

By A.I. Rofe

 

Rofe Alexander Iosifovich - Professor of the
Department of Labor Economics and HRM of the Academy of Labor and Social
Relations, Doctor of Economics, Professor, Honored Scientist of the Russian
Federation, Honored Worker of Higher Professional Education of the Russian
Federation.

Address: Lobachevskogo St. 90, Moscow, 119454.

Tel.: +7 (963) 620 09 20. E-mail: rofe-ai@yandex.ru

 

Summary. This article reviews the essence and content of the science and academic
subjects "Personnel Economics" and "Human Resources Management". "Personnel
Economics" - this was the title of the textbooks issued at the Russian Economic
University named after G.V.Plekhanov and the Moscow State University named
after M.V.Lomonosov. At a round-table conference held at the Moscow State
University named after M.V.Lomonosov, when discussing a new concept of labor
economics, they spoke about partitioning of the problem area of this science
and suggested that it should be called personnel economics. The author pays
attention to the fact that the subject "Personnel Economics" proved to be
outside the existing structure of the economic sciences. It cannot be referred
to any interindustry functional subjects, as enterprises and organizations do
not perform such an activity as "personnel". Neither personnel are a separate
society, production or industry business system. The subject matter included in
the textbooks on personnel economics agrees with the one which is examined by
"Labor Economics" and "HRM" subjects. In this connection, the author makes a
conclusion that the name of the science and academic subject "Personnel
Economics" seems to be farfetched and departing from the customs of domestic
teaching of the labor economics.

Besides, the author points out that the higher
education discipline "HRM" unreasonably creates too high awareness as to what
graduating students who have acquired the said profession should be engaged in.
In this connection, it seems that the higher education discipline "HRM" can be
more accurately renamed "Personnel Development". The author sticks to the idea
that the concepts of such disciplines as "Labor Economics" and "HRM" should be
developed in association with the system of the appropriate educational and
professional standards.

 

Key words: Labor economics, personnel, human resources management, personnel
development, labor market, educational and professional standards.

 

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INSTITUTIONAL REGULATION OF THE POPULATION
EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR MIGRATION IN RUSSIA

 

By B.G. Zbyshko

 

Zbyshko Bogdan Grigorievich - Professor, Doctor of
Economics, Professor of the Department of Labor Economics and HRM of the
Russian Economic University named after G.V.Plekhanov, Professor of the
Department of Government and Municipal Service of the Moscow State Humanitarian
University named after M.A.Sholokhov.

Address: Verkhniye Polya St. 35, block 5, apartment
172, Moscow, 109559.

Tel.: +7 (905) 591 71 75. E-mail: zbg101@yandex.ru

 

Summary. The article reviews some problems of institutional regulation of two major
sectors of operation of labor markets directly involved in the formation of the
innovation economy in the Russian Federation - the population employment and
labor migration. Within the bounds of analysis of the factors effecting the
population employment and regulation of the regional labor markets, the article
examines the crisis occurred in Russia at the turn of the twentieth and twenty
first century. The author pays special attention to the localization of
problems that have occurred nowadays within the scope of securing the
population employment, including labor migration. Notwithstanding the underdevelopment,
continuing formation of the labor markets and seeking the ways to restructure
the economy, Russia has become an attractive destination for numerous migrants
from all over the world. Standing second in the world as regards the migration
scale, Russia needs a comprehensive analysis of the current situation with the
employment, a generation of highly skilled workers, an ensuring of the optimal
and efficient economical structure. The author convincingly substantiates that
it is absolutely necessary to cardinally revise the Russian legislation on the
population employment and suggests that the general public and mass media
should be involved in the discussion of the ways to overcome the problems in
the sphere of employment.

 

Key words: Employment, unemployment, economically active population, labor
migration, institutional regulation, labor market, vocational training.

 

THE INTERNAL CONTROL AND INTERNAL AUDIT AT THE STATE-OWNED ORGANIZATIONS

 

By E.A. Lukinova

 

Lukinova Elena Anatolievna - Candidate of Economics, Associate
Professor, Professor of the Department of Accounting and Audits of the Academy
of Labor and Social Relations.

Address: Lobachevskogo St. 90, Moscow, 119454.

Tel.: +7 (917) 542 09 75. E-mail: elluk77@mail.ru

 

Summary. Until recently, the concept "audit" has not been in use in the sphere of
the government finance, where a state financial control prevailed. However,
with the Federal law № 402-FZ dated Dec. 6, 2011 "On Accounting" taking effect
and the budgetary legislation and regulatory legal documents on accounting of
state-owned organizations being amended, the concept "internal control" has
revived and expanded to date. The problems of internal audit in the sphere of
the government finance are nowadays pressing as well. The author attempts to
unveil the concept, legal basis and specifics of the arrangement and exercise
of the internal control and internal audit at the state-owned organizations. The internal control should be arranged
for by the organization itself with the aim to prevent or detect any departure
from the established accounting rules and procedures, as well as any corruption
of accounting data, accounting (financial) and other records. The internal financial audit, as is
defined in the Budgetary Code of the Russian Federation, "is performed on the
basis of the functional independence of chief managers (managers) of the
budgetary funds, chief administrators (administrators) of the budget revenues,
chief administrators (administrators) of the sources of finance of the budget
deficit (their dully authorized officers) to evaluate the reliability of the
internal financial control and prepare their recommendations to increase
efficiency of such control and confirm the accuracy of budgetary
accountability". The article discloses the concept and essence of the internal
financial audit in the state sector. By giving an example of a chief manager
(manager) of the budgetary funds, a chief administrator (administrator) of the
budget revenues, a chief administrator (administrator) of the sources of
finance of the budget deficit - the Federal Treasury (Treasury of Russia), the
author demonstrates the specifics of the arrangement and exercise of the
internal control and internal audit in the sphere of the government finance and
the procedure how to document the results of such control (audit). The author
studies the issues of documentation and accounting in performing the internal
control and internal audit at the state-owned enterprises.

 

Key words: Internal control, internal audit, self-checking, subordination check,
jurisdiction check, internal financial control forms.

 

Labor Law

 

THE LEGAL REGULATION OF THE ACTIVITY OF SMALL-SCALE AND MEDUIM-SCALE
BUSINESS PLAYERS

 

By G.Z. Khafizova

 

Khafizova Gulnaz Zakiryanovna - Candidate of Law,
Associate Professor of the Department of Law Subjects of the Kazan Branch of
the Academy of Labor and Social Relations.

Address: Moushtari St. 9, Kazan, Republic of
Tatarstan.

Tel.: +7 (917) 289 07 73. E-mail:
9172890773@rambler.ru

 

Summary. The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the legal regulation of
small-scale and medium-scale business players. The author defines the basic
types of such businesses and criteria for their classification. The author
points out that the legal norms and requirements addressed to the small-scale
and medium-scale businesses differentiate on an industry level. The author
emphasizes that despite of the active support to small-scale business on the
part of the state, the current legislation is not sufficient. The existing
requirements are either meant not for all small-scale and medium-scale business
players or they do not determine an effective tool to implement them in
practice. In this connection, the author points out that the government should
give full support to such businesses, otherwise all talks about their
efficiency are senseless. Besides, the author pays special attention to the
fact that in defining benefits and preferences for the small-scale and
medium-scale business players, the legislators do not always determine who is
obliged to confirm the status of the above businesses - the small-scale and
medium-scale business players themselves who are interested in obtaining the
corresponding benefits, or the state authorities. In addition, the author
stresses that as of today there is no unified register of the small-scale and
medium-scale business players.

 

Key words: small-scale and medium-scale business players, field check, accounting,
microenterprise, government support.

 

THE LEGAL REGULATION OF THE CHILD LABOR IN RUSSIA BEFORE THE BEGINNING
OF THE XX
th CENTURY

 

By G.N. Kartashova

 

Kartashova Galina Nikolaevna - Applicant for the
Department of the Labor Law of the Academy of Labor and Social Relations.

Address: Komsomolskaya St. 247/65, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk,
693023.

Tel.: +7 (914) 755 02 17. E-mail: k.g.n.25@mail.ru

 

Summary. The article reviews the issues of the historical development of the legal
regulation of the labor of minors in Russia before the beginning of the XXth
century. The author analyses the normative legal acts regulating the social
relations in Russia in the XVIIth-XIXth centuries and
governing the employment relationship with children at factories, plants and
manufactories. The author comes to a conclusion that the children were the
first party to the factory legislation and subsequently to the labor
legislation. The author convincingly proves that as the production intensely
developed, children were more and more involved in labor, but their working and
living conditions deteriorated. The factory industry in Russia grew mostly at
the expense of poor peasants and minors who were often forced to work. There
was a widespread practice when craftsmen, peasants and their families were
bound to their factories forever. The extensive historical and documentary
material used by the author allows assert that the reasons for regulating the
employment of children in Russia were absolutely identical with those in other
European countries, as well as the reasons for not applying the laws that
limited the arbitrary behavior of the manufacturers. The author comes to a
conclusion that before 1917 a unified law regulating the employment relations
or a deed on the legal status of children was never passed in Russia. However,
the normative legal acts of the first half of 1880th that laid the
foundation of the operation of the domestic industry in whole and the factory
legislation particularly were of paramount importance for the regulation of the
use of child labor in the native industry.

Keywords:
Factory legislation, legal regulation of labor, minors, homeless children,
orphans, craft shops, handicraft industry.

Social Institutions
and Processes

 

ACTUARIAL GROUNDS FOR CONDITIONS OF UPWORD MOVEMENT OF THE RETIREMENT
AGE IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION¹

 

By A.K. Solovyov

 

Solovyov Arkady Konstantinovich - Doctor of Economics,
Professor of the Financial University under the auspices of the Russian
Government, Honored Economist of Russia.

Address: Shabolovka St. 4, Moscow, 119991.

Tel.: +7 (495) 987 81 45. E-mail: sol26@100.prf.ru

 

Summary. The problem of higher retirement age in Russia has already been
discussed since the first market reforms of the pension scheme, i.e. for the
last quarter of a century, but without any visible progress. At the same time
all sophisticated nations have already hammered out a clear plan of action to
resolve this problem, having, however, different social and economic
consequences: Some utilized a "shock" therapy and raised the retirement age
within one to two years; others dragged this process for several decades; the
third rejected the age-related regulator in the pension scheme. Under the
present-day social and economic conditions, the problem of raising the retirement
age has taken on special significance. Advocates of the age lift regard the
retirement age as the main factor of budgetary cost cutting by reducing the
number of pensions. However, the possibility and legitimacy of solving
financial problems of the Russian pensions system through the retirement age
lift is determined, on the one hand, from the position of insured persons - by
the existence/absence of demographic, social and working prerequisites for the
retirement age raise, on the other hand, from the position of the state - by
the consequences of implementation of such measure for the budget of the
Pension Fund of Russia and macroeconomics in whole [1]. The author handles the
retirement age problem in the context of other problems of the pension system,
performs a complex analysis of macroeconomic, demographic, social and working
prerequisites of implementation of such measure, its impact on long-term
financial soundness and balance of the pension system.

 

Key words: Pension, reform, age, insured persons, demography, macroeconomics,
Pension Fund of Russia, budget, population.

 

¹Statistical
analysis and calculations were made by S.A.Dontsova, S.E.Kuchuk and E.B.
Novikova.

 

THE MOTIVATION OF THE TRADE UNION
WORK: PROBLEMS AND PRIORITIES

 

By Sh.Z. Sanatulov

 

Sanatulov Shamil
Zeinalovich - Doctor of Pedagogics, Professor, Deputy Director of the Center of
Trade Unions Researches of the Institute of Trade Union Movement of the Academy of Labor and Social Relations.

Address: Lobachevskogo St. 90, Moscow, 119454.

Tel.: +7 (499) 722 74 27. E-mail: nicipd@yandex.ru

 

Summary. The efficiency of trade unions activity is to a large extent conditioned
by motivation of trade union officials and activists. However, this is a
little-studied problem in trade unions activity, and this is why the author
addresses it in his article. The article deals with the theoretical and
methodological questions of motivation of trade union activity and also defines
the major motives of participation in the trade union work. Opinions, arguments
and estimations of the trade union officials as regards the trade union
activity expressed during All-Russian survey "Personnel Operations of Trade
Unions: Problems and Priorities" conducted by the Institute of Trade Union Movement of the Academy
of Labor and Social Relations in 2013 generally uphold the author's findings.
They were generalized, systematized and grouped according to their
significance, which allowed rank the main motives for the trade union work
according to a 10-score scale, as well as to determine the priority guidelines
in the activity in order to enhance motivation and activity of the trade unions
officials in general in modern trade union practice. It is up to the tasks
assigned at the IXth Congress of
the Federation of Independent Unions of Russia (Feb. 7-9, 2015) in the field of
organizational and human resources reinforcement of the trade unions.

 

Key words: Motivation, trade union activity,
staffing work, remuneration of labor, social and working relations, competence,
social security.

 

ON THE RESULTS OF THE MONITORING OF
THE NEEDS OF DISABLED PERSONS IN EMPLOYMENT, IN STARTING A OWN BUSINESS IN
SAINT-PETERBURG

 

By E.M. Starobina, I.E. Kuzmina, S.G. Krivenkov

 

Starobina Elena Mikhailovna - Doctor of Pedagogies, Head of the Department of Professional
and Psychological Rehabilitation of the Disabled Persons of the St.
Petersburg Scientific and Practical Centre of Medical and Social Expertise,
Prosthetics and Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons named after G.A.Albrekht of
the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation.

Address: Pervaya Poperechnaya St. 3,
Sestroretsk, St. Petersburg, 197701.

Tel.:+7 (911) 815 11 56. E-mail:
estarobina@yandex.ru

Kuzmina Irina Efimovna - Candidate of Psychology,
Leading Researcher at the St. Petersburg
Scientific and Practical Centre of Medical and Social Expertise, Prosthetics
and Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons named after G.A.Albrekht of the Ministry
of Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation.

Address: Bestuzhevskaya St. 50, St.
Petersburg, 195067.

Tel.: +7 (812) 543 99 74. E-mail: ie-kuz@yandex.ru

Krivenkov Sergei Gennadievich - Candidate of Biology, Senior
Researcher at the St. Petersburg Scientific and
Practical Centre of Medical and Social Expertise, Prosthetics and
Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons named after G.A.Albrekht of the Ministry of
Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation.

Address: Bestuzhevskaya St. 50,
Saint-Petersburg, 195067.

Tel.: +7 (812) 543 99 74. E-mail:
krivenkov.serg1954@yandex.ru.

*In
commemoration of former Deputy Chairman of Committee of Labor and Employment of
Population of St. Peterburg A.M.Kalichinina.

 

Summary. The article deals with the monitoring held in St.
Petersburg of the needs of unemployed disabled persons of working age in
employment, in starting their own business. The results of the monitoring allow
identify the problems disabled persons encounter when seeking employment and
the factors affecting their employment, as well as to reveal the specificities
of the employment of disabled persons of various categories. In the authors'
opinion, when developing measures to promote the effective employment of persons
with disabilities, it is necessary to take into account that such persons are a
heterogeneous group and their needs are thus different. Such characteristics as
the severity of disability, the specificity of disability (functional
disability), the age of persons with disabilities should be taken into
consideration. When developing the measures aimed to help disabled persons
effectively obtain a job, the preference should be given to those who wish to
re-enter the workforce, as well as to adolescents and youth focused on
education and obtaining a profession. The results of the survey of persons with
disabilities indicate that in the system of factors affecting the employment of
people with disabilities, apart from those directly related to a health status,
a significant role belongs to the socio-economic factors. The data obtained
during the monitoring will be an important target for the development of city
programs to promote the employment of persons with disabilities. Continued work
in this direction will allow identify the dynamics associated with the
peculiarities of the employment of disabled persons in St. Petersburg and also
determine trends for the city and for the employment of various categories of
persons with disabilities in accordance with the socio-economic changes in the
country.

 

Key words: Labor market, disabled persons, employment, employment of
persons with disabilities, unemployment, job segregation.

 

Finances.
Money Circulation. Credit

 

ESTIMATED RESULTS OF DAY-TO-DAY FINACIAL OPERATIONS OF THE ENTERPRISE
UNDER RISKS

 

By M.A. Antonova

 

Antonova Marina Arkadievna - Candidate of Economics,
Associate Professor of the Department of Economy and Finances of the Academy of
Labor and Social Relations (Kazan Branch), Associate Professor at the Krasnodar
Cooperative Institute (Branch) of the Russian University of Cooperation.

Address: Okolnaya St. 30, apartment 26, Kazan, 420033.

Tel.: +7 (917) 286 41 41. E-mail: ama07@list.ru

 

Summary. Any comprehensive theoretical or methodological base has not yet taken
shape in the Russian Federation, which base would allow manage the financial
operations of an enterprise, given various concomitant risks in combination
with the required resources to be determined for this. Financial managers of
enterprises are perplexed by the current situation, as they do not have any
practical tool to solve this problem. The author attempts to unveil the
theoretical and practical aspects of a possible evaluation of day-to-day
financial operations under risks. Based on the review of financial performance
of a concrete business enterprise, its liquidity ratio, financial soundness,
profitability indicators, the author evaluates the results of its financial
operation under risks. The author analyses the liquidity risks of the
enterprise according to relative indices and the absolute liquidity ratio. The
author discloses some negative factors due to which the enterprise may run the
risk of insolvency and financial volatility. The author makes a conclusion that
the enterprise in question is exposed to a liquidity risk. This makes it
impossible for the enterprise to repay in timely manner its accrued liabilities
and balance the inflow and outflow of its monetary funds. The low equity ratio
indicates that this business enterprise becomes more and more dependent on
external creditors. On the bases of his study, the author outlines certain
risks associated with the day-to-day financial operations at the enterprise.

 

Key words: Financial operations, insolvency, financial soundness, credit risk,
liquidity, capital mobility ratio.

 

 

 

(STANDBY)

THE HISTORICAL STAGES AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS FOR THE ACTIVITY OF
NATURAL MONOPOLIES IN RUSSIA

 

By A.N. Gorbachev

 

Gorbachev Anton Nikolaevich - Postgraduate of the
Department of Economics and Management of the Academy of Labor and Social
Relations.

Address: Volzhky Blvd. 95, block 5, apartment 264,
Moscow, 109125.

Tel.: +7 (926) 254 27 74. E-mail: gorba4ev@gmail.ru

 

Summary. The article reviews the main development stages of natural monopolies.
The author defines the concept "monopoly", describes the types of monopolies
and economic specifics of the activity of natural monopolies (the features of
natural monopolies markets, the economy of scale). The author cites the
foundations for the operation of enterprises having a natural monopolies
nature. The author considers the economic and historical aspects of the origin
of the concept "natural monopoly", as well as how the activity of natural
monopolies was viewed starting from the end of the XIXth century up to now. The author shows how the
relations between the state and natural monopolies have developed since the
earliest times up to now. The author singles out the main historical stages of
development of the state regulation since the earliest times up to the period
of liberalization of the monopolistic markets and transition to the
market-oriented regulation. The author cites the specifics of development of
the activity of natural monopolies in Russia with account of the historical and
economical peculiarities on the territory of Russia since the end of the XIXth century (the development of railroads, war
industry and oil industry), during the XXth
century (planned economy - the GOELRO plan), at the end of the XXth century and the beginning of XX-st century,
when new technologies emerged and the competition developed on monopolistic markets.
The author gives an analysis of the characteristics of the activity of the
modern Russian monopolies, such as the selective privatization of property, the
budget-generating function of monopolies, the international importance of the
activity of monopolies, the security and stability of the state's
infrastructure. The author indicates the main tendencies of the development of
the activity of natural monopolies with consideration of both the Russian and
international expertise as regards the deregulation of the activity of natural
monopolies, use of the state-of-the-art technologies, increase of the
efficiency of goods and services distribution and consuming, improvement of
state control mechanisms.

 

Key words: Natural monopoly, power industry, communal complex, state control,
competition, power efficiency, deregulation.